Glossary and common abbreviations

The glossary contains te reo Māori words and phrases that are commonly used in the Action Plan.

Te reo Māori is a rich language. Most words have multiple meanings, depending on the context in which they are used. We have given definitions for the words that reflect the way we intend them to be used in this report. Unless another reference is given, these definitions are based on those in Te Aka the online Māori dictionary, as this resource is widely accepted.

Te reo Māori English meaning
Ākonga Māori Student, learner, pupil. We use ākonga Māori to differentiate between ākonga who are Māori and those who are tauiwi
Ara Way, path, lane, passageway, track, course, route
Hapori Section of a kinship group, family, society, community
Hapū Kinship group, clan, tribe, subtribe. Hapū is a section of a large kinship group and the primary political unit in traditional Māori society. It consisted of a number of whānau sharing descent from a common ancestor. A number of related hapū usually shared adjacent territories forming a looser tribal federation (iwi)
Hauora Health, vigour
Hui Gathering, meeting
Iwi Extended kinship group, tribe, nation, people, nationality, race. Iwi often refers to a large group of people descended from a common ancestor and associated with a distinct territory
Kaiako Teacher, instructor. We use the term kaiako Māori to differentiate between kaiako who are Māori and those who are tauiwi
Kaimahi Worker, employee. Kaimahi Māori refers to a Māori worker or employee
Kanohi ki te kanohi Face to face, in person
Kaumātua Adult, elder, elderly man or woman. A person of status within the whānau
Kaupapa Topic, policy, matter for discussion, plan, subject
Kāwanatanga Government, dominion, rule, authority, governorship
Kete Basket, kit
Kōrero Speech, narrative, story, discussion, conversation
Mahi Work, job, trade (work)
Mahi tūturu Tūturu can mean permanent, real, actual, authentic or legitimate. When prefixed with ‘mahi’, it means legitimate, permanent, full-time and part-time mahi
Māmā Mother, mum
Mana Prestige, authority, control, power, influence, status, spiritual power, charisma. Mana is a supernatural force in a person, place or object
Mana motuhake Separate identity, autonomy, self-government, self-determination, independence, sovereignty, authority. Mana through self-determination and control over one's own destiny
Manaakitanga Hospitality, kindness, generosity, support. The process of showing respect, generosity and care for others
Mana tuku iho A sense of identity and belonging
Mana whanake Sustainable prosperity
Māoritanga Māori culture, Māori practices and beliefs, Māoriness, Māori way of life
Mātauranga Māori Māori knowledge. The body of knowledge originating from Māori ancestors, including the Māori world view and perspectives, Māori creativity and cultural practices
Mauri Life principle, life force, vital essence, special nature, a material symbol of a life principle, source of emotions. The essential quality and vitality of a being or entity
Mokopuna Grandchildren, grandchild. Child or grandchild of a son, daughter, nephew, niece, etc and descendant
Motu Country, land, nation
Ōritetanga Equality, equal opportunity
Pēpē Baby
Pou Post, pillar
Rangatahi Younger generation, youth
Rohe Boundary, district, region, territory, area, border (of land)
Takatāpui Māori Takatāpui is a traditional Māori term meaning intimate companion of the same sex. It has been reclaimed to embrace all Māori who identify with diverse sexes, genders and sexualities
Tamariki Children
Tāmaki Makaurau Auckland
Tāne Men. Tāne Māori refers to Māori men
Tāngata whaikaha People with disabilities
Tāngata whenua Local people, hosts, indigenous people. People born of the whenua – the placenta – and of the land where the people's ancestors have lived and where their placenta are buried
Taonga Treasure, anything prized – applied to anything considered to be of value including socially or culturally valuable objects, resources, phenomenon, ideas and techniques
Tauiwi Foreigner, European, non-Māori, colonist
Te ao Māori Māori world
Te reo Māori Māori language
Tikanga Māori Correct procedure, custom, habit, lore, method, manner, rule, way, code, meaning, plan, practice, convention, protocol. The customary system of values and practices that have developed over time and are deeply embedded in the social context
Tino rangatiratanga Self-determination, sovereignty, autonomy, self-government, domination, rule, control, power.
Tino rangatiratanga needs to be understood/defined, from a Crown perspective, in terms of the Treaty of Waitangi/Te Tiriti o Waitangi, and the differences between the Māori and English texts. This concept relates to hapū and iwi who were co-signatories of the Treaty with the Crown. This is a reasonable definition of tino rangatiratanga: “the unfettered chiefly powers [tino rangatiratanga] of the rangatira, the tribes and all the people of New Zealand over their lands, their dwelling-places and all of their valuables [taonga].” In contrast, the English version only guarantees Māori possession over their lands and estates. (See Distinguished Professor Dame Anne Salmond’s Brief of Evidence for the Waitangi Tribunal (Wai 1040, 17 April 2010) at 11 where she translates Article 2 of the Treaty.)
Rangatiratanga can be understood at individual and whānau levels as the ability to exercise one’s decision-making capacity in day-to-day activities (for example, in cultural, economic, environmental and social spheres), which can nevertheless overlap with collective activities of hapū and iwi
Wāhine Women. Wāhine Māori refers to Māori women
Wairua Spirit, soul. Spirit of a person that exists beyond death. It is the non-physical spirit, distinct from the body and the mauri. To some, the wairua resides in the heart or mind of someone, while others believe it is part of the whole person and is not located at any particular part of the body
Waiora Health, wellbeing
Wānanga Tertiary institution that caters for Māori learning needs
Whakaaro Thought, opinion, understanding, idea
Whakapapa Genealogy, genealogical table, lineage, descent
Whakawhanaungatanga Process of establishing relationships, relating well to others
Whānau Extended family, family group; familiar term of address to a number of people; the primary economic unit of traditional Māori society. In the modern context, the term is sometimes used to include friends who may not have any kinship ties to other members
Whanaungatanga Relationship, kinship, sense of family connection
Whenua Land
Abbreviation Meaning
EET Employment, education and training
GFC Global Financial Crisis
ITP Industry Transformation Plan
IRD Inland Revenue
MBIE Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
MfW Ministry for Women
MME Māori-medium education
MoE Ministry of Education
MSD Ministry of Social Development
NICF National Iwi Chairs Forum
NEET Not in employment, education or training
RoVE Review of vocational education
RSLG Regional Skills Leadership Group
TPK Te Puni Kōkiri
TEC Tertiary Education Commission