Glossary of key terms

Key term Description
Access Network Access Network, for the purposes of this document, is the telecommunications infrastructure connecting a machine or a user via copper, fibre and wireless-based technologies.
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) A broadband access network technology using copper telephone lines.
Backhaul The middle of a telecommunications network, providing high-capacity links that connect the core network with local access networks and mobile base stations.
Connectivity Connectivity, for the purposes of this document, means the ability to connect 2 or more points through telecommunications networks for transferring data or voice information back and forth. Connectivity encompasses various characteristics such as speed, latency, capacity and coverage, which are often considered key factors to assess network quality.
Download speed The maximum rate at which users can download data (e.g. a file such as an image or video clip, or browse or move between websites) over the internet.
EUL End User Locations
Fibre Fibre-optic cables and associated equipment that allow optical transmission between points at very high speeds.
Fixed wireless Fixed wireless is a broadband service that enables an end user to connect through wireless technology, for example cellular.
Internet of Things (IoT) The increasingly vast range of physical objects and devices that are able to connect to the internet and each other to communicate and share data.
Latency The time it takes for data to be transferred between the sender of the data and its destination. Latency is measured in milliseconds. Common experiences are the delay or lag a person observes when making a voice call over a satellite link or when playing a fast-moving online game that is hosted overseas.
Local Fibre Company (LFC) Fibre companies such as Chorus, Tuatahi First Fibre, Enable and Northpower, as defined in Section 156AB of the Telecommunications Act 2001.
Low Earth Orbit satellite (LEO) Satellites that orbit the Earth at a lower height (often less than 1,000 kilometres) than geostationary satellites, frequently in large, interconnected groups known as constellations.
Megabits per second (Mbps) A measure of speed or data throughput. Mbps is faster than Kilobit per second (Kbps) but slower than Gigabits per second (Gbps).
Mobile Black Spot Fund (MBSF) The government-funded programme to improve availability of mobile services on state highways and tourism sites from 2016-2023. By the end of 2023, approximately 1,400km of state highways and over 168 tourism sites will receive mobile coverage.
Rural Broadband Initiative Phase 2(RBI2) The government-funded programme providing enhanced broadband for approximately 84,000 rural houses and businesses rolled out by the end of 2023.
Ultra-Fast Broadband (UFB) The government-funded programme of providing fibre to over 410 cities and towns and key institutions (schools, hospitals, medical centres) rolled out between 2011 and 2023.
Very-high-speed Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) An upgrade to ADSL technology that allows for an increased speed of internet access over conventional, aging copper telephone lines.
Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP) Local, relatively small providers that provide internet connection services to rural or remote areas of New Zealand using wireless (radio) technology.
4G The generic term describing the fourth generation of mobile phone and fixed wireless access network standards
5G The generic term describing the fifth generation of mobile phone and fixed wireless access network standards