Oil security in New Zealand
We’re responsible for ensuring the oil and fuel supply chain in New Zealand can manage any domestic or international disruptions. We work closely with the fuel sector.
Liquid fuels like petrol, diesel and jet fuel are essential for industry, business and New Zealanders’ day-to-day activities. From time to time, we commission reviews of the fuel system to ensure we’re aware of any risks and can address these to improve oil security.
We're in regular contact with the fuel sector. We work with them to ensure appropriate policies and measures are in place to reduce the impact of international and domestic oil supply disruptions.
The Government has undertaken a number of studies and initiatives on New Zealand’s oil and fuel security and the options for mitigating supply disruptions:
Government Inquiry into the Auckland Fuel Supply Disruption
A Government Inquiry was commissioned after the Refinery to Auckland Pipeline was shut down for 10 days in September 2017 following the discovery of a leak. The pipeline supplies petrol, diesel and jet fuel from the Marsden Point Refinery to the Wiri Oil Terminal in South Auckland.
The outage led to the rationing of jet fuel supplied to Auckland Airport, flight cancellations and stock-outs of some ground fuels (mainly premium petrol) at a number of service stations in Auckland.
The purpose of the Inquiry was to draw lessons from the event to improve the resilience of fuel supply in the Auckland region.
The Inquiry made 21 recommendations in its report. Read the Inquiry's Report.(external link)
Study on Economics of Fuel Supply Disruptions and Mitigations
In 2019, we commissioned Market Economics to evaluate the economic impacts of a range of international and domestic (within New Zealand) fuel disruption scenarios, and to model the impacts of mitigation options (primarily storage options) in these scenarios. A report was produced from this study:
Petroleum Supply Security 2017 Update
In 2017, we assessed the resilience of the New Zealand petroleum supply chain. Our update provides the latest information on risks, particularly recent studies relating to tsunami risks.
We completed our 2017 update before the outage of the Refinery to Auckland Pipeline in September 2017.
Considering tsunami impacts and disruption events
We engaged independent consultants Hale & Twomey to update previous assessments. These previous assessments had informed the 2012 oil security review of the likelihood and impact of significant oil supply disruption scenarios. For more information, see the Oil Security Review 2012 below.
Our 2017 update:
- considers the potential impacts and contingency options for a major tsunami event that might affect multiple ports
- draws on Exercise Tangaroa 2016 and recent research. Exercise Tangaroa was a civil defence emergency management exercise. It simulated a magnitude 9.1 earthquake near the Kermadec Islands, which generated tsunami waves affecting the New Zealand coastline. The exercise highlighted the vulnerability of fuel supply infrastructure at Marsden Point, Tauranga, and several other coastal ports
- considers the role of Wynyard Wharf as a contingency option in a major disruption event in Auckland, in more detail than previous assessments.
International Energy Programme
New Zealand participates in the International Energy Programme to protect against disruption to international energy supplies. Developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the programme enables coordinated and collective action by requiring IEA countries to hold 90-day oil stocks.
Since 2007, we’ve met the 90-day oil stocks obligation through domestic commercial stocks and ‘ticket’ contracts for stocks held in other IEA member countries.
For more information, see New Zealand’s participation in the International Energy Programme.
Oil Security Review 2012
In 2011 and 2012, we commissioned 3 studies into New Zealand’s oil security. The studies assessed oil supply disruptions to:
- the domestic supply chain that can cause supply shortfalls and problems with fuel distribution
- international supply that can cause a spike in the global oil price, resulting in damage to New Zealand’s economy.
From these studies, we produced 3 reports:
1. A report evaluating options for re-establishing fuel supply to Auckland during a long-term fuel supply disruption: RAP contingency options [PDF, 837 KB]
2. A report recommending options to improve oil security, based on the cost of supply disruptions and the cost of measures to improve oil security: New Zealand Oil Security Assessment Update [PDF, 1 MB]
3. A report that summarises oil supply disruption scenarios, the direct costs of each disruption, and an estimate of the probability of each scenario: Information for NZIER Report on Oil Security [PDF, 634 KB]
Improving oil security through other measures
At a broader level, oil security can also be improved through measures like:
- increasing fuel mix diversity
- improving the fuel efficiency of the vehicle fleet
- encouraging greater use of domestic fuel supplies
- reducing demand for transport energy.
The government and industry are pursuing these measures in different ways. The New Zealand Energy Strategy and the New Zealand Energy Efficiency and Conservation Strategy (NZEECS) outline a number of these measures.
For more information, see Energy strategies for New Zealand.