Possible alternative approaches to the dry year problem
Non-hydro options are also being explored as possible ways to resolve the dry year problem in a 100% renewable electricity system.
In addition to pumped hydro and other hydro-based options, the NZ Battery Project is also looking at other possible technologies or approaches to address the dry year problem. An alternative could be complimentary to, or a substitute for, pumped hydro.
The NZ Battery Project team generated an initial long-list of alternative approaches, which were then screened against criteria and feedback received through targeted external engagement, and in consultation with the Technical Reference Group.
Five broad alternative technologies were identified as having the technical potential to help manage dry year risk:
- biomass, biogas and biofuels
- geothermal energy, including novel approaches to using it
- hydrogen or other green vectors (e.g. green ammonia)
- compressed or liquid air
- flow batteries
Further analysis is required to assess whether all of these technologies are suitable for long-term, large-scale renewable energy storage, and are applicable in a New Zealand context. We are currently procuring external engineering advice to further refine this list, and then explore further the feasibility of those options that still look prospective.